The limit to USB power is from the fuses not so much the power adapter used, incoming power via USB-C or Vin appears limited to 2600mA. Also seen in the picture below, 500mA(USB port next to LAN), 900mA(USB port next to USB-C) fuses limit current on port's 5vdc output. The USB ports on the GPIO are each(?) limited to 500mA. It might better be seen in the Schematic(PDF)
EDIT: It would be good to have one of the little USB Volt/Current gadgets to get a real time reading of the current demands of each of your USB devices. I have one on the way, I get curious about this.
I sometimes use a generic powered 4-port hub. I have noticed no problems using it with the Vim or USB connected devices, Sound card, Mouse, Thumb drive, etc. I have not used for SATA or IDE yet.